Friday, May 15, 2009

Reading an Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA) HIV Test Results

The immunofluorescent assay (IFA) HIV test is performed in order to examine a tissue sample for the presence of HIV-1 virus. An IFA HIV test consists of a drawing blood or plasma samples from the patient and requesting him or her to undergo laboratory analysis. The purpose of this is to identify detectable levels of the antibodies the immune system makes to battle the HIV virus.
1. Remember that the IFA HIV test is usually utilized after using a more standardized western-blot test or ELISA test. This test is capable of returning a positive or inconclusive result. IFA is not regularly performed by the doctors as an initial-screening procedure for the HIV virus, though preferences differ from doctor to doctor and clinic to clinic.
2. Plan to examine the results with the help of your physician or the qualified, sexual-health professional who gave the test. If you want to guard your privacy, you can ask the assistance of an anonymous in-person HIV testing services, particularly in larger cities.
3. As needed by the IFA test, the patient must give out a blood or plasma sample.
4. Don’t hesitate to inquire about the method used by the laboratory to conduct an IFA HIV test from your doctor. In an immunofluorescent assay (IFA) test, there is a specific antibody the antigen generates to fight the HIV-1 virus. This is ought to utilize one of four techniques: competitive, noncompetitive, heterogeneous or homogeneous-immunoassay testing.
5. Allow the doctor to explain the protocol specific to the lab completing testing on your sample. Laboratories will need a specified amount of HIV-1 antigen presented before assert a test reactive or positive. As compared with other HIV tests, the immunofluorescent assay (IFA) HIV test will be reported positive after a single immediate test result.
6. Obtain a follow-up tests performed if your IFA test revealed read positive results.

Symptoms: Sometimes They Just Don’t Work

Panicking, how would you explain it? Fear as it may denote right? How would you react when you found out that you have all of the symptoms needed for a person to die? You can take it seriously and in reverse you can laugh at it but the point is that though symptoms indicates probability, it doesn’t happen all the time. Sometimes what you suspect turns out to be a diverting factor of what really you suffer.
It’s very simple. It is probable for two medical conditions to have similar symptoms? The symptoms of hypothyroidism can be similar to the symptoms of other medical conditions. Is it possible? Yes it is. Taking thyroid problems as an example, you may be aware that it poses symptoms such as the feeling of gritty and dry, the sensitivity of your eyes to light, strange feeling in neck or throat, ringing ears, recurrent sinus infections, vertigo, and lightheadedness but don’t you know that similar symptoms are applicable to other conditions. What does this suggest? This wants to imply that symptoms does not confirm anything, it should only serve as a guide and not as a basis.
How would you be able to know if you are positive from thyroid-related diseases? The list of the symptoms may serve as a guide but to make everything confirmed, the aid of medical tools is vital. Today figuring hypothyroidism goes the modern way, the use of Thyroid Kits makes everything fast and clear. It’s just frustrating to know that though these kits are available, there still remains notable number of people who disregards the help that it can offer.
Thyroid Testing is very simple; it does not require prescription from any physician. Assures quality results at a span of time, and yes truly it is.

Chemistry Analyzer Review: Stat Fax 3300 versus Stat Fax 1904 Plus

The importance of determining the concentration or activity of a protein, carbohydrate, lipid electrolyte, enzyme and small molecule in easily-collected bodily fluids such as blood, serum, plasma and even urine sets the focus for chemistry analyzers. Two of the most commonly used Chemistry Analyzer models are Stat Fax 3300 and Stat Fax 1940. With regards to technically aspects, which of the two is better?
Reviewing the product specification is one of the most effective ways to be able to arrive to the nearest possible answer to this very technical question.
Stat Fax 3300 Chemistry Analyzer Special Features
• Flip-up display screen.
• Large 240 x 128 pixel graphical display. (Watch kinetic plots in real time.)
• Plug in standard external keyboard for easier data entry (sold separately).
• Use 40-column on-board thermal printer, external printer, or PC.
• Create a work list, run the tests, print patient reports. Stores patient data.
• Stores control values and create Levey-Jennings plots for QC.
• Optical system is temperature controlled to 37C.
• Bi-chromatic w/ 6 filters and spaces for 2 optional filters (340-700nm).
• Adapts to use 12 mm round tubes, 1 cm square cuvettes, or built in flow cell.
• Vacuum system speeds sampling and reduces carryover.
• Calibration traceable to NIST standard. are far evolving its importance in the field of clinical chemistry analysis

Stat Fax 1904 Chemistry Analyzer Special Features
• Bichromatic optical system with six wavelengths including 340nm
• Pre-programmed calculations for both kinetic and endpoint assays
• Twelve-station 37C incubation block and temperature controlled read cell
• Easy to use with step-by-step prompting and built-in thermal printer with graphics capability
• Contains large non-volatile memory to store more than 50 curves and test parameters.

Looking at its technical specifications –minor differences can be notably seen. Stat fax 3300 is equipped with 2 additional wavelengths which Stat Fax 1904 does not have. So what now, which is best chemistry analyzer? Well it depends where are you using it for? Got it?

Infectious Diseases Kits: Knowing Who Your Little Enemies Are

We may not see them by our naked eyes. They may be too little that we tend to be so confident that they cannot bring any harm towards us, especially to our health. This does not have something to do with anything but bacteria. Bacteria are the main reason why a lot of people suffer from the fatal claws of infectious diseases. How will you be able to counteract these diseases if you yourself does not know who causes these diseases? How will you be able to defeat your enemy if you don’t know who your enemy is?
In 2003 worldwide mortality rate all infectious diseases accounted for the death of 16.4 million people. And today it is estimated that these infectious diseases kills 57 million people every year and 18 million of it were children under 5 years of age or 33 percentage of the total. Does it sound alarming?
The commercialization of Infectious Diseases Kits is quite a good move in the field of infectiology. Before an infectious disease is to be treated, its classification should be first identified, here comes the importance of these kits. It’s either by means of serum, whole blood, saliva or buffer extraction where a test can be conducted using Infectious diseases kits, then figure out what kind of bacteria has penetrated your immune system.
Can the test be done at home? This question needs another question and that is, do you have the knowledge on how to do the test similar to those of the experts? The practice of the test using the kits should only be done with the aid of those who can be considered as experts. The proper handling of samples and proper treatment of each specimen are the most important factors to consider.

The Amalgamation of Microplate Reader

Definitely, technology is not static; it is in a continuous process of discovery and innovation. These benefits every industry and most especially in the field of assays and detection technologies production industry. Today Microplate readers have evolved as a better medium allowing researchers to perform multiple assay types in just one instrument.
Looking back on the statistics of Microplate readers in the year 2007, the majority, which is 67 percentages of multitude readers, depends mainly on filter-based technology and the minority which is 19 percentages uses monochromator-based technology. Only 13 percentages use both types. In the near future these figures are expected to change as researchers incorporate the use of assay platform into their work. This setup sees a big jump as Microplate readers becomes more vital in fluorescent detection, fluorescent intensity, fluorescent resonance energy transfer, fluorescent polarization and the like.
The use of Filter-based Multimode Microplate Reader and Monochromator-based Multimode Microplate Reader has its best advantages but the market is still longing for a more advance technology wherein the package of both advantages can be acquired without the combined expense of both. The Microplate reader market today is setting its best concern in the criteria of flexibility, limits of detection, sensitivity, and multiple read modes, as considered to be the most critical technical requirement. The concept of developing a Microplate reader which incorporates the features of Filter-based Multimode Microplate Reader and Monochromator-based Multimode Microplate Reader comes into a big consideration for researchers.
The development of a reader with such given requirement is starting; in fact several companies are now creating hybrid Microplate readers with the capacity of multi-detection, and high sensitivity, increased versatility. The production of such hybrid type readers will complement different requirements. It will also pave way for faster and more concise different processes such as drug discovery, bioassay validation, and Quality check.

Warning: Sodium Nitroferricyanide Content in Urine Reagent Strips

Medical related products are one of the most common things we purchase wherein we tend to be so confident that we use them without even reading the product specification, the direction of use, and yes the most important thing; the composition. How many times have you read the labels of the product that you have purchased?
Urine Reagent Strips, are you familiar with these testing instrument? A Urine Reagent Strip is a dip-and-read strip intended for use as a diagnostic aid using urine specimens. It does contain solid phase reagent areas affixed to a plastic support. Urine Reagent Strips provide test for qualitative and semi quantitative determination of Creatinine, pH and even glucose in urine samples by the visual comparison with color charts of each concentration range. Now try to put yourself in a scenario where you have purchased the said product, use the product for medical purposes and yes you have leave this strips after use without disposing it properly. Say you have little kids at home; do you get what I mean?
Some may act like a jerk; they may act like this for they do not know what harm it may cause. Majority of commercial Urine Reagent Strips produced today contain sodium Nitroferricyanide. Then who the hell cares if it does. Well this may how idiot person will react.
In the event of inhalation it may cause irritation to the respiratory tract and systemic poisoning with symptoms paralleling ingestion. What happens when you ingest it? Its effect would be similar to nitrite poisoning. Symptoms may include headache, flushing of the skin, vomiting, colic diarrhea, muscular weakness, dizziness, collapse, fall in blood pressure and a lot more than you think. No doubt why it was given a 3=severe health rating.

The Different Types of ELISA

ELISA or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is a diagnostic method used in detecting the presence of antibody or an antigen in a particular sample. This biochemical technique has been very useful in medicine particularly in immunology and in plant pathology, and has divided into four different types: Direct and Indirect ELISA, Sandwich, Competitive, and Multiplex ELISA.

· Direct ELISA is a method of directly labeling the antibody itself. The microwell plates which are coated with a sample containing the antigen and the labeled antibody are quantitated using a chemiluminiscent, colorimetric or fluorescent end-point. This method avoids the secondary antibody to cross-react with the antigen sample components. However, direct ELISA consumes more time to carry out and requires expensive proposition.

· Indirect ELISA is a two-step method that uses a primary and secondary labeled antibody. The primary antibody is incubated with the antigen followed by the incubation of the secondary antibody. But, this may give a nonspecific signal result because cross-reaction with the secondary antibody may occur.

· Sandwich ELISA measures the amount of antigens between a two given antibody layers. The antigens contain at least two antigenic spots since at least two antibodies act in the sandwich. In performing this assay, the first antibody is purified and bound to a solid phase attached to the bottom of the plate. Then an antigen is added and allowed to combine with the bound antibody while the unbound products are removed. Finally, the second antibody is bound to the antigen completing the sandwich ELISA.

· Competitive ELISA is an assay that does not require a “matched pair” antibodies. In this method, one reagent must be paired to a detection enzyme (horseradish or peroxidase) and then the enzyme is linked to another antibody. With competitive ELISA an opposite relationship between the signal and the concentration of the analyte in the sample is obtained.